IJEER Vol no. 12, Issue 2


Improved Power Sharing Strategy for Parallel Connected Inverters in Standalone Micro-grid

The primary goal of integrating alternative energy systems such as solar and wind turbines into the power grid using power electronic devices is to meet the growing energy demands. Connecting inverters in parallel effectively enhance power capacity, reliability, and overall system efficiency. However, an uneven power distribution among the inverters is a significant limitation in these parallel connected inverters (PCI). This study focuses on a distributed generation (DG) unit comprising a solar photovoltaic system (SPV) and a battery energy storage system (BESS) connected to voltage source inverters (VSI) 1 and 2. The proposed approach aims to achieve uniform load/power distribution among the inverters with power management, maintaining a constant DC link voltage despite variations in solar irradiation and temperature. Additionally, the strategy targets the reduction of total harmonic distortion (THD) in the load current.

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Optimizing Capacitor Placement in Distribution Systems Under Variable Loading Conditions with Golden Jack Optimization (GJO)

In modern society, the demand for electricity is ever-growing, making the minimization of power losses in distribution systems paramount. One significant aspect contributing to these losses is the strategic placement of capacitors within the distribution network. Efficient capacitor placement not only reduces power losses but also enhances the overall performance and reliability of the system. In today's world, where electricity is indispensable, minimizing power losses in the distribution system holds significant importance. This research introduces the Golden Jack Optimization (GJO) algorithm as a novel approach to address the challenge of capacitor placement in distribution systems. GJO, inspired by the foraging behavior of jackals, exhibits unique characteristics such as adaptability and efficiency in finding optimal solutions this paper proposes an innovative algorithm specifically designed for this purpose.

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Green Power Ev Charging Station Design and Analysis for Electric Vehicles

The primary goal of this research is to design on electric vehicle charging station with less emission in Chennai due to an increase in electric vehicles. The wind and solar are common renewable energy sources which produces green power. These renewable sources can also be implemented with diesel generator and grid connection to run the Electric Vehicle (EV) charging station. This research also focuses on the cost of energy and the total cost of the system for different sources to operate EV charging station. The sources to operate an EV charging station in various period of time to charge the vehicle are analyzed. The sensitivity analysis like derating of solar also done to examine the status of different parameters in entire system with low cost. The design of low-cost system for Electric Vehicle charging station will be a useful implementation to Chennai city for charge various EV vehicles.

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DFIG in Wind Energy Applications with High Order Sliding Mode Observer-based Fault-Tolerant Control Scheme using Sea Gull Optimization

This paper describes a new method for maximizing power extraction from a wind energy conversion system (WECS) by using a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) that operates below nominal wind speed. To maximize the collected power of a wind turbine (WTG) exposed to actuator failure, a fault-tolerant high-order sliding mode observer (HOSMO) and Seagull Optimization Algorithm with a model predictive controller (MPC) technique is proposed. Evaluate both the real state and the sensor error simultaneously using a higher-order sliding-mode observer. Active fault tolerant controllers are designed to regulate wind turbine rotor speed and power in the presence of actuator defects and uncertainty. With the growing interest in employing wind turbines (WTGs) as the primary generators of electrical energy, fault tolerance has been seen as essential to improving efficiency and reliability.

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Resource Optimization in H-CRN with Supervised Learning Based Spectrum Prediction Technique

Cognitive radio network shows potential means of granting intensifying demand for wireless applications. In this model, an efficient resource optimization scheme with Priority Pricing Technique (PPT) is proposed with supervised learning-based SVM to tackle limited spectrum availability and underutilization in Hybrid-Cognitive Radio Networks (H-CRN). H-CRN works under the principle of detection of PUs states (active/inactive). If spectrum sensing is made in favor of active PUs, then the CSI (Channel State Information) is estimated and works in underlay principle. If it is made in favor of inactive PUs, then the transmission is performed in overlay manner. In the proposed PPT the PUs and SUs with highest channel gain have the highest priority to use the spectral resources. SVM is used as an effective technique of spectrum sensing to provide higher probability of detection of PUs as soon as possible.

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Empowering Smart City IoT Network Intrusion Detection with Advanced Ensemble Learning-based Feature Selection

This study presents an advanced methodology tailored for enhancing the performance of Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) deployed in Internet of Things (IoT) networks within smart city environments. Through the integration of advanced techniques in data preprocessing, feature selection, and ensemble classification, the proposed approach addresses the unique challenges associated with securing IoT networks in urban settings. Leveraging techniques such as SelectKBest, Recursive Feature Elimination (RFE), and Principal Component Analysis (PCA), combined with the Gradient-Based One Side Sampling (GOSS) technique for model training, the methodology achieves high accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score across various evaluation scenarios.

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Rate 5/6 TCM Code Having 64 States with 64 QAM for Fading Channel

Trellis Coded Modulation (TCM) is powerful technique employed in digital communication systems to improve the reliability and efficiency of data transmission. TCM combines error control coding and modulation schemes to achieve superior performance in challenging channel conditions. In TCM, information bits are encoded using a trellis encoder, which generates a sequence of encoded symbols. These symbols are then mapped onto a modulation scheme, such as Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) or Phase Shift Keying (PSK), to create the modulated signal. At the receiver, the received signal is demodulated and decoded using a trellis decoder, which employs maximum likelihood decoding to recover the original information bits. The trellis structure allows for efficient error correction and makes TCM particularly suitable for channels with fading, noise, and other impairments.

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IoT Security Framework Optimized Evaluation for Smart Grid

Modern systems' needs may be satisfied by smart grid technologies. Since we frequently struggle to effectively manage security, the smart grid's capacity is frequently underutilized. Despite the fact that a variety of solutions have been offered for securing the smart grid, the problem still exists that no single solution can entirely protect the environment. We provide a protection architecture for the IoT-connected smart grid. The proposed framework to secure IoT devices for the smart grid includes three complementary approaches. By conducting a rigorous comparative analysis of our proposed solution alongside four existing models, we contribute to the ongoing discourse on bolstering the security infrastructure of the smart grid IoT environment.

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Improved Magnetic Resonance Image Reconstruction using Compressed Sensing and Adaptive Multi Extreme Particle Swarm Optimization Algorithm

One powerful technique that can offer a thorough examination of the body's internal structure is magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI's lengthy acquisition times, however, may restrict its clinical usefulness, particularly in situations where time is of the essence. Compressed sensing (CS) has emerged as a potentially useful method for cutting down on MRI acquisition times; nevertheless, the effectiveness of CS-MRI is dependent on the selection of the sparsity-promoting algorithm and sampling scheme. This research paper presents a novel method based on adaptive multi-extreme particle swarm optimization (AMEPSO) and dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) for fast image acquisition in magnetic resonance. The method uses AMEPSO in order to maximize the sampling pattern and minimize reconstruction error, while also exploiting the sparsity of MR images in the DTCWT domain to improve directional selectivity and shift invariance.

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Design and Development of Mathematical and Thermal Load Modelling for Induction Heating Systems

Complex systems can be modelled and their performance can be anticipated with the help of current computers and software tools that are applicable in real-world situations. The IH system is capable of being modelled and put through analysis in two distinct domains. The modelling is compatible with the research and applications in their entirety, including the particular control circuits and converter systems under consideration. The use of electrical modelling makes it possible to analyse the features of the IH load and to examine the variations in the parameters in order to determine the impact of load variations. In order to gain an understanding of the load's flow and thermal distribution, thermal modelling is a crucial component of this study.

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A Study of High Gain DC-DC Boost Converters for Renewable Energy Sources

This paper presents a comprehensive investigation into the various topologies of DC-DC boost converters which are designed for optimal integration with RES like photovoltaic (PV) systems. Photovoltaic applications demand efficient energy harvesting and management to maximize the conversion of solar energy into electrical power. The DC-DC topologies include switched coupled inductor, basic coupled inductor, coupled capacitor with coupled inductor with a snubber circuit, active clamp, high step-up and three-winding dual switches are considered for study. Each topology is analyzed in terms of its suitability for PV applications, considering factors such as efficiency, voltage gain, and reliability.

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Improved Mayfly Algorithm for Optimizing Power Flow with Integrated Solar and Wind Energy

Across the globe, the transition towards sustainable energy systems necessitates seamless implementation of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) into traditional power grids. Such RESs include solar and wind power. The current research work intends to overcome the challenges associated with Optimal Power Flow (OPF) problem in power systems in which the traditional operation parameters ought to be optimized for effective and trustworthy integration of the RESs. The current study proposes an innovative nature-inspired approach by enhancing the Mayfly algorithm on the basis of mating behaviour of mayflies. The aim of this approach is to tackle the complexities introduced by dynamic and discontinuous nature of solar and wind power. The improved Mayfly algorithm aims at minimizing power losses, emission, optimize voltage profiles, and ensure reliable integration of solar and wind power.

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Enhancing Performance of Power Allocation for VLC Networks by Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access-MIMO

Visible light communication, or VLC, networks emerged as a viable option for data access, particularly indoors. Their cost-effectiveness, protection to radio frequency (RF) intrusion, and extraordinarily high data speeds make them a desirable option for the upcoming generation of indoor networking technologies. In this paper, we propose the Exponential Gain Ratio Power Allocation (EGRPA), an effective and low-complex power splitting method, to increase the attainable sum amount in Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) VLC downlink networks. Using numerical simulations, we assess the enactment of an indoor 2x2 MIMO VLC downlink model for several users.

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Modelling of IPFC with multifunctional VSC for low-frequency oscillations damping and system stability improvement

The unified power flow controller (UPFC) approach maximizes active power transfer with the least amount of losses by independently controlling both reactive and active power flow. This makes it possible to use individual transmission lines more effectively. The interline power flow controller (IPFC) utilizes the concept of UPFC for economic operation and control, management of multiline transmission systems. In its most basic form, the IPFC consists of many DC to AC converters such as voltage source inverters (VSCs), each of which performs the same purpose as the UPFC: providing series compensation for every line in multiline transmission system. A novel idea for the efficient power flow control management and compensation in multiline transmission system is the IPFC. This research proposed a backup controller for an effective modelling of IPFC in order to reduce low-frequency oscillations using four different damping controller options.

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Exact Computing Multiplier Design using 5-to-3 Counters for Image Processing

This work presents a novel approach to improve the area and energy efficiency of 5:3 counter, a key element used in digital arithmetic. To provide an effective substitute for addition operations, mostly in the partial product reduction stage of larger multipliers, this study suggests a new 5:3 counter. The Input Shuffling Unit (ISU) is employed within the proposed 5:3 counter to minimize gate-level implementation and path delay during partial product reduction in 16-bit and larger multipliers, thereby enhancing area and energy efficiency. Consequently, there are 84% fewer choices of input-output combinations, thereby decreasing the circuit complexity with respect to area and energy usage.

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Reliability Improvement of Grid Connected PV Inverter Considering Monofacial and Bifacial Panels Using Hybrid IGBT

The development of bifacial photovoltaics has led to significant advancements in solar energy. Unlike traditional solar panels, which only generate electricity from the front side, these panels capture the energy from the rear and front surfaces. Bifacial photovoltaics utilize a dual-sided absorption to capture the sunlight that falls on nearby structures and the ground. This technology helps boost their efficiency and makes them an economical and sustainable choice. Furthermore, the increased energy production from the rear side of bifacial panels may lead to higher voltage fluctuations, which affects the thermal stability of PV inverter. Nevertheless, PV inverter is regarded as critical component which affects the reliability performance. Hence in this paper reliability improvement methodology with hybrid IGBT is proposed for the PV inverter.

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Risk Assessment of Radial Distribution Systems using Modified Jelly Fish Search Algorithm to analyse the Performance Indices

One of the essential techniques for figuring out Power Distribution System performance is reliability evaluation. With time, the range of methods for assessing reliability has grown, and the distribution system's evolution has also become more intricate. The likelihood of a network failing grows with time once it begins to function, especially if it is used for an extended period. Reliability indices have been evaluated using different algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Genetic Algorithm (GA) and various modified versions of algorithms. The Jelly Fish Search Algorithm has been used in various power system applications such as to determine the most cost-effective way to dispatch generating units' loads, integrate Distributed Generation (DG) units, track the maximum power of photovoltaic systems, and determine optimal power flow solutions, among other uses.

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A Switched Z-Source and Switched Capacitor Multi-Level Inverter Integrated Low Voltage Renewable Source for Grid Connected Application

Most of the renewable sources generate power at lower voltage levels in the range of 20-50V which cannot be utilized by the loads. Therefore, stacking multiple modules in series increases the voltage level or using conventional boost converter or QZSis helpful. However, due to series stacking and boost converter or QZS there is a great power loss and also have reliability issues.The QZS inverter has very less boosting gain in the range of 2times. Theconventional boost converter or QZSis replaced with SZSC for voltage boosting and inverter operation. The SZSC boosts the voltage 4-5 times to the input voltage level. For further mitigation of harmonics, the conventional 6-switch inverter is replaced with switched capacitor MLI. Multiple renewable sources are at the input which include PV array, battery unit and PMSG wind module.

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Application of Many-Objective Arithmetic Optimization Algorithm and TOPSIS for Optimal Planning of DGS in Distribution Systems

The traditional planning of distribution networks is changing because of the accelerated expansion of distributed generation (DG) technologies in various capacities and forms. However, the improper integration of DGs in current distribution networks can give rise to several technical difficulties despite the advantages provided by distributed generation technologies. This paper presents the optimal DG planning in the distribution system using a Pareto-based many-objective arithmetic optimization algorithm (MOAOA) for optimal DG planning problems in the distribution system. This work focuses on improving four technical metrics related to distribution systems: mitigation of electrical energy not served (EENS), total voltage deviation (TVD) minimization, voltage stability index (VSI) maximization, and energy loss mitigation.

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VSC-STATCOM Performance Under Different Fault Sensing using PSO Tuned Hybrid SMC

In this paper, we investigate the PSO-tuned hybrid SMC performance based VSC-STATCOM under different conditions of fault using hybrid renewable energy sources (HRES). A hybrid renewable energy resource system (HRES) consists of PV, wind power, and batteries. Here the Irradiance is the PV input and the wind energy is Wind Input. The storage of energy is used for battery. The battery is used for changing weather condition or the changing the condition of the environment. Hybrid VSC-STATCOM controller based on SMC to reduce power quality issues like sag, swell, harmonics etc. associated with HRES system mainly due to non-linear load conditions.

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